Survival Directory

The History Of Nuclear Weapons And Programs Disk 3 of 3

Nuclear History Disk 1 | Nuclear History Disk 2

Get all Three disks for only $30 These 57 videos are on three DVD Disks in MPEG format and are mostly meant to be played on your computer. If you buy them for your home DVD player please make sure your home DVD player supports playing the MPEG format.


To order by credit card through paypal click the above BUY NOW button.
To order by money order click on the following link for details

The History Of Nuclear Weapons And Programs Disk 3

Operation Sandstone Part 1 and 2

15:15 Min Color In 1948, the U.S. nuclear stockpile consisted of approximately 50 atomic bombs. Since the industrial complex to produce more nuclear weapons was not fully complete and there were limited amounts of plutonium, researchers wanted to develop more efficient implosion bombs. Operation Sandstone was a series of atmospheric nuclear "proof tests" conducted in the Pacific Proving Grounds Marshall Islands area April and May 1948. The goal of this test series was to prove the workability of changes to implosion warhead design that used less plutonium. The first shot, X-ray, conducted on April 14, 1948, had a yield of 37 kilotons. The second shot, Yoke, detonated on April 30, had a yield of 49 kilotons, while the last shot, Zebra, occurred on May 14 with a yield of 18 kilotons.

Operation Teapot, Military Effects Studies

1954 30:20 Min Color - Operation Teapot consisted of 14 nuclear tests detonated from February 18 to May 15, 1955.

The goal of the series was to test nuclear devices for possible inclusion in the nuclear weapons stockpile; improve military tactics, equipment and training; and study civil defense requirements. With Operation Teapot, the Atomic Energy Commission intensified its technical effort for "clean" or reduced fallout weapons and missile warheads. This effort led to significant advances in both reduced fallout and in miniaturization necessary for warhead delivery on missiles.

Approximately 11,000 scientific and military personnel participated in the entire test series. Approximately 7,700 Army personnel and 1,300 Marines participated in the Desert Rock VI exercises that included the WASP, MOTH, TESLA, TURK, BEE, ESS, APPLE-1, MET, and APPLE-2 tests. The troops observed nuclear blasts to familiarize themselves with weapons effects and battlefield tactics. After observing a blast, they would tour a display area of military equipment exposed to the blast. Both officers and enlisted personnel practiced nuclear age battlefield tactics and combat techniques.

In addition to studying the psychological effects of nuclear weapons on ground soldiers, scientists and military leaders wanted to learn the effects of the detonations on different types of military equipment and structures. One test, APPLE-2, involved a specially constructed "Doom Town," complete with houses, automobiles, paved streets, and mannequins. This village allowed scientists to assess the effects of nuclear detonations on civilian populations, products, and food supplies, and to evaluate Civil Defense emergency preparedness plans.

At that time, U.S. leaders and the public were acutely aware of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union, and there was a general fear of an all-out nuclear attack by the Soviets. Hence, a great emphasis was placed on Civil Defense.

The tests comprising the 1955 Operation Teapot were as follows:
WASP, February 18, airdrop, weapons effects, 1 kiloton (kt)
MOTH, February 22, tower, weapons related, 2 kt
TESLA, March 1, tower, weapons related, 7 kt
TURK, March 7, tower, weapons related, 43 kt
HORNET, March 12, tower, weapons related, 4 kt
scientists sought to determine if smog attenuated the heat of a nuclear fireball
BEE, March 22, tower, weapons related, 8 kt
ESS, March 23, crater, weapons effects, 1 kt
APPLE-1, March 29, tower, weapons related, 14 kt
WASP PRIME, March 29, airdrop, weapons related, 3 kt
HA (high altitude), April 6, airdrop, weapons effects, 3 kt
POST, April 9, tower, weapons related, 2 kt
MET, April 15, tower, weapons effects, 22 kt
scientists gathered data from 38 experiments placed around ground zero
APPLE-2, May 5, tower, weapons related, 29 kt
ZUCCHINI, May 15, tower, weapons related, 28 kt

Operation Upshot and Knothole

1953 35:45 Min Color Same detals as below.

Operation Upshot and Knothole Project 5.2

Atomic Weapons Effects on B-50 Aircraft - 1953 - 19:00 - Black&White (Silent) - This operation conducted at the Nevada Test Site consisted of 11 atmospheric tests. There were three airdrops, seven tower tests, and one airburst. Conducted between March 17 and June 4, 1953, this operation involved the testing of new theories, using both fission and fusion devices. A new and revolutionary method of producing deliverable thermonuclear weapons was successfully tested. Approximately 21,000 Department of Defense military and civilian personnel participated in Operation Upshot-Knothole as part of the Desert Rock V exercise.

Unfortunately, Operation Upshot-Knothole, particularly the HARRY test, drew a great deal of criticism as resultant fallout levels produced increased offsite radiation exposures.

The tests comprising the 1953 Operation Upshot-Knothole were as follows:
ANNIE, March 17, tower, weapons related, 16 kilotons (kt)
NANCY, March 24, tower, weapons related, 24 kt
RUTH, March 31, tower, weapons related, 200 tons
DIXIE, April 6, airdrop, weapons related, 11 kt
RAY, April 11, tower, weapons related, 200 tons
BADGER, April 18, tower, weapons related, 23 kt
SIMON, April 25, tower, weapons related, 43 kt
ENCORE, May 8, airdrop, weapons effects, 27 kt
HARRY, May 19, tower, weapons related, 32 kt
GRABLE, May 25, fired from 280 mm gun, airburst, weapons related, 15 kt
CLIMAX, June 4, airdrop, weapons related, 61 kt

Operation Wigwam, Commanders Report

1955 35:45 Min Color The U.S. Navy, envisioning a war in which atomic depth charges would be used, wanted to learn how much of a nuclear blast a well-built submarine could take. The submarine Skate had not withstood the BAKER explosion of Operation Crossroads.

At a location listed as "N 29 degrees, W 126 degrees," about 500 miles southwest of San Diego, a deep underwater, weapons effects nuclear test, WIGWAM, rumbled through the ocean. A model submarine experiment submerged beneath a floating barge vanished after the 30-kiloton burst of power from Operation Wigwam on May 14, 1955.

A combination of high winds and rough seas prevented recovery of much of the test data. Approximately 6,500 personnel took part in this operation.

1962 Pacific Nuclear Tests

1962 21:15 Color Min Polaris underway with a nuclear warhead, is the narrator’s description of the first of a two-part video. Joint Task Force 8, made up primarily of Department of Defense and Atomic Energy Commission representatives, was responsible for the upcoming test.

The video shows the preparations, installation of safety monitoring and diagnostic equipment, placement of test and observation vessels, and the actual nuclear test of a Fleet Ballistic Missile. Participating in the test were personnel aboard the aircraft carrier Yorktown, the destroyer Norton Sound, and the submarine Carbonero.

The May 6, 1962, date loomed for the nuclear detonation FRIGATE BIRD, part of the Operation Dominic/Nougat test series. The test was conducted approximately 525 miles from Christmas Island, the nearest land mass, at coordinates for ground zero of North 4 degrees 50 minutes, West 149 degrees 25 minutes. The submerged submarine Ethan Allen, carrying 16 Polaris missiles, launched the missile, and the warhead detonated on target, giving the cameras and viewers a spectacular scene. The narrator closes: "Polaris on target. . .with design yield and full service." The yield has not been announced, but it was enough to shake the crew of the submarine Carbonero for several seconds.

The second part of the video shows an antisubmarine rocket (ASROC) underwater nuclear weapons-effects test, described as another proof test of a Navy nuclear weapon system. It was configured as a nuclear depth charge. The video shows the preparations, placement of diagnostic devices, safety precautions, and other activities performed in readiness for the test. The SWORDFISH test was conducted approximately 370 miles southwest of San Diego at North 31 degrees 14 minutes, West 124 degrees 13 minutes. It has a reported yield of less than 20 kilotons.

The ASROC was launched from the destroyer Agerholmn on May 11, 1962. Its target was a raft circled by diagnostic devices. The ASROC is shown flying for a short time before entering the water and detonating at a predetermined depth. The explosive force created a one-mile radius radioactive base surge, and it engulfed a target ship. Once the initial base surge subsided, a second plume was created from the detonation bubble, plummeting tons of water. The cameras captured sensational footage of the blast effects. The submarine Razorback, submerged at periscope level 2.5 miles from ground zero, is shown being tossed around. The full sequence of the nuclear depth bomb deployment is shown.

Project Cannikin Review

1971 13:00 Min Color This video reviews Project CANNIKIN, a nuclear test conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, at 11:00 a.m., Bering Standard Time, on November 6, 1971. CANNIKIN, a slightly less-than-five-megaton device, was the largest underground nuclear test conducted in the United States. CANNIKIN was conducted to proof test a warhead for the Spartan missile, a Safeguard Ballistic Missile Defense Program.

The video shows the nuclear device and instrumentation canister being lowered into the shaft, detonation sequences, and test effects. A long-range view of water turbulence after the detonation is shown, but no tsunami or large ocean wave was observed or recorded. Numerous ground shock waves are shown at normal speed and as seen by high-speed, slow-motion cameras located at various sites on the island. Surface effects at ground zero and other island locations were filmed one day after the test. Approximately 38 hours after the test, a subsidence crater, approximately 1.5 miles in diameter and 55 feet deep, began to form.

Many scenes in the video have no sound intentionally; no material was deleted.

The three underground nuclear tests conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, were as follows:
LONG SHOT, October 29, 1965, shaft, Vela Uniform Project, approximately 80 kilotons
MILROW October 2, 1969, shaft, weapons related, approximately 1 megaton (Mt)
CANNIKIN, November 6, 1971, shaft, weapons related, less than 5 Mt

Project Gnome

1961 29:13 Min Color Project GNOME was part of Operation Nougat. The 3-kiloton GNOME test was detonated 1200 feet underground in a salt bed formation on December 10, 1961, near Carlsbad, New Mexico.

GNOME was the first nuclear test in the Plowshare Program. The Plowshare Program objectives were to determine how energy produced from nuclear explosions could be used for peaceful or civilian purposes. The Vela Uniform Program studied seismic detection, identification, and location of nuclear explosions. Studies were conducted underground with ground-based instruments for detecting explosions in outer space and with established satellite-based instruments for detecting explosions in outer space.

Although GNOME was a Plowshare test, the Vela Uniform objective was to determine how the signals and effects of a 3-kiloton device detonated underground in salt beds differed from the outputs of detonations of different yields in other geologic formations such as tuff and granite. Scientists also wanted to compare the seismic signals from underground tests with that of earthquakes.

Includes an introduction by Dr. Edward Teller, one of the few times he was captured on film. Several long-range and close-up views of surface effects from the detonation are shown as well as people reentering the detonation cavity approximately 6 months after the test when the underground cavity was opened to both official observers and members of the press. No other Operation Nougat footage is shown in this video.

Project Long Shot

1965 13:15 Min Black&White This video discusses Project LONG SHOT, a Department of Defense, Defense Atomic Support Agency- sponsored test, with participation of the Atomic Energy Commission, the Department of the Interior, the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and numerous university scientists and engineers.

The approximately 80-kiloton LONG SHOT device, buried 2300 feet underground, was detonated on October 29, 1965. As part of the Vela Uniform Program, LONG SHOT’s primary purpose was to find ways to detect nuclear explosions underground using ground-based seismic instruments.

This video discusses geological studies conducted on the island prior to the detonation; test preparations including construction milestones; an overview of experiments conducted during the project; and environmental and safety activities before and after the test. The canister holding the nuclear explosive is shown being lowered into the shaft. Surface effects during and after the detonation are also shown.

The three underground nuclear tests conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, were as follows:

LONG SHOT, October 29, 1965, shaft, Vela Uniform Project, approximately 80 kilotons
MILROW October 2, 1969, shaft, weapons related, approximately 1 megaton (Mt)
CANNIKIN, November 6, 1971, shaft, weapons related, less than 5 Mt


1969 7:28 Min Color Project RULISON was a gas stimulation Plowshare Program nuclear test. Plowshare was a program that promoted using the energy produced from nuclear explosions for peaceful uses and applications. The 40-kiloton RULISON test was detonated 6 miles west of Grand Valley, Colorado, on September 10, 1969. Its purpose was to release natural gas reserves locked tightly in the sandstone and shale Mesa Verde formation. The estimated cost for the RULISON project was 6.5 million dollars, funded primarily by the Austral Oil Company of Houston, Texas.

The video shows the explosion, underground rock fracturing, gas release, and underground well operations in schematic animation. Footage of the site, including the actual nuclear explosive package, is shown before the test explosion, but not during or after the test.

Project Sedan

1962 7:42 Min Color Project Sedan, a Plowshare Program test, that promoted the application of nuclear explosives to develop peaceful uses for atomic energy, was conducted at the Nevada Test Site on July 6, 1962. This cratering explosion, with a yield of 104 kilotons, displaced 12 million tons of earth and formed a 1,280-foot-diameter by 320-foot-deep crater in the desert floor, releasing seismic energy equivalent to 4.75 on the Richter Scale. The purpose of the Sedan explosion was to determine if nuclear devices could be used as cratering or earth moving mechanisms.

SADM Delivery by Parachutist and Swimmer

Special Atomic Demolition Munition 9:45 Min Black&White No explosions, The Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was a Navy and Marines project that was demonstrated as feasible in the mid-to-late 1960s, but was never used. The project, which involved a small nuclear weapon, was designed to allow one individual to parachute from any type of aircraft carrying the weapon package that would be placed in a harbor or other strategic location that could be accessed from the sea. Another parachutist without a weapon package would follow the first parachutist to provide support as needed.

The two-man team would place the weapon package in an acceptable location, set the timer, and swim out into the ocean where they would be retrieved by a submarine or other high-speed water craft. The parachute jumps and the retrieval procedures were practiced extensively.

The video shows a man in a wet suit donning his parachute, the weapon package, and a reserve parachute. After he jumps from the aircraft and is nearing the water, he drops the weapon package down on a 17-foot line to lessen the impact of his landing. He then floats the weapon package to the desired location.

Starfish Prime Test Interim Report by Commander

Fishbowl Auroral Sequences Silent; Dominic on Fishbowl Phenomenon Silent; Fishbowl XR Summary Silent 1962 1:01:25 Min Black&White and Color Four Films on One Video

Starfish Prime Test Interim Report by Commander JTF-8 7:45 Min Sound STARFISH PRIME, was one of the high-altitude nuclear tests in the Operation Fishbowl series conducted in the Pacific Proving Ground in 1962. It was launched in the Johnston Island area to an altitude of about 400 kilometers by a Thor rocket and had a yield of 1.4 megatons.

The test evaluated the capabilities of an antiballistic missile to operate in a nuclear environment and the vulnerability of a U.S. reentry vehicle to survive a nearby nuclear blast. It also provided information on the ability of a U.S. radar system to detect and track reentry vehicles. Another goal was to discern the effects of a high-altitude blast on command and control systems, which were shown to be vulnerable in earlier high-altitude tests. The final goal was to obtain information on the feasibility of testing in outer space.

Fishbowl Auroral Sequences 7:50 Min Color Silent BLUEGILL and STARFISH were high-altitude nuclear tests, part of Operation Fishbowl, conducted in the Johnston Island area of the Pacific Proving Ground in 1962. These tests produced auroral effects, a special feature of explosions where the extreme brightness of the fireball is visible at great distances. Within a second or two after the burst, a brilliant aurora appears from the bottom of the fireball.

The formation of the aurora is attributed to the motion, along the lines of the earth’s magnetic field, of beta particles emitted by the radioactive fission fragments. About a minute after the detonation, the aurora could be observed in the Samoan Islands, 2000 miles from the detonation. These auroras could be seen for approximately 20 minutes. The video shows footage of the auroras from Somoa, Mauna Loa (Hawaiian Islands) and Tongtapu (Tonga Islands) at various film speeds.

Dominic on Fishbowl Phenomenon 1:12 Min Color Silent Operation Fishbowl was the high-altitude testing portion of a larger Operation Dominic I. This video is a compilation of footage of the five nuclear tests comprising Operation Fishbowl conducted in the Johnston Island area of the Pacific Proving Ground in 1962. A high-altitude burst is one occurring above 100,000 feet. The video does not identify the date, time or name of the tests.

When a nuclear weapon detonates at a high altitude, many of the effects are attenuated. Most of the x-ray energy is absorbed in the air, which decreases the fireball temperature. Absorption of thermal x-ray energy also decreases the energy available for a shock wave. This all results in the development of a toroidal or donut-shaped cloud instead of the usual mushroom shape of ground or near ground explosions.

This also shows the auroral effect of high-altitude explosions where the extreme brightness of the fireball is visible at great distances. Within a second or two after the burst, a brilliant aurora appears from the bottom of the fireball. The formation of the aurora is attributed to the motion, along the lines of the earth’s magnetic field, of beta particles emitted by the radioactive fission fragments. About a minute after the detonation, the aurora can be observed from as far away as 2000 miles. These auroras can be seen for approximately 20 minutes.

Fishbowl XR Summary 34:38 Min Black&White Silent The video shows the five, rocket-launched, Operation Fishbowl tests at various camera speeds and from different camera locations. Operation Fishbowl was the Department of Defense’s high-altitude testing portion of Operation Dominic I, conducted in the Johnston Island area of the Pacific Proving Ground in 1962. In a high-altitude blast, many of the effects are attenuated, resulting in a toroidal or donut-shaped cloud instead of the mushroom cloud from a surface burst. These weapons-effects tests, launched by Strypi, Thor, and Nike Hercules rockets, were as follows:
STARFISH PRIME, July 9, 400-kilometer altitude, 1.4 megaton
CHECKMATE, October 20, tens of kilometers altitude, low (less than 20 kt)
BLUEGILL 3 PRIME, October 26, tens of kilometers altitude, submegaton (less than 1 Mt, but more than 200 kt)
KINGFISH, November 1, tens of kilometers altitude; submegaton (less than 1 Mt, but more than 200 kt)
TIGHTROPE, November 4, tens of kilometers altitude, low (less than 20 kt)

Two goals of these tests were to determine if radiation and blast and heat effects of high- altitude detonations were capable of neutralizing an enemy reentry vehicle and capable of determining the blackout effects on radar and communications of various yields and altitudes of bursts.

Composite No 1 Swordfish

Sailor Hat Conventional Test, Various dates 17:45 Min Color This video is a composite of several delivery systems and nuclear and non-nuclear Navy tests. SWORDFISH was a low-yield nuclear weapon test (less than 20 kilotons) of an antisubmarine rocket (ASROC) delivery system conducted in the Pacific. The underwater test produced a spectacular eruption on the ocean surface. Operation Sailor Hat involved using numerous conventional explosives to simulate nuclear blasts. Delta, the last Sailor Hat test in the ship evaluation program, was conducted to study seismological data, underwater acoustics, radio communications, cratering, air blast effects, cloud growth, fire ball generation, and electromagnetic data. There is dramatic video footage of the effects of this simulated nuclear blast on the test ships.

There is footage of a depth bomb deployment from an aircraft. At water entry, the parachute is jettisoned. A ship-fired, ASROC-delivered Mark 45 torpedo was parachute deployed before entering the water and searching for and finding the submarine target. The torpedo, moving at 40 knots until reaching the proper depth in the water, then began a horizontal movement toward the target. Once in place, the warhead detonated. A submarine rocket (SUBROC) is shown ejecting from a nuclear submarine’s torpedo tube, coming out of the water, flying up to 25 miles, reentering the water, and finally finding its target. A 39-inch long Mark 55 thermonuclear warhead, weighing approximately 460 pounds, was then detonated.

Technical Training Film Bulletin 11

The Defense Atomic Support Agency Presents Technical Training Film Bulletin Number 45, Part II - Talos Missile Handling, Cruiser Installation 13:00 Min Black&White and Color The Talos missile, fired from a Navy Cruiser, could carry either a conventional or nuclear warhead. The Mark 30 warhead was designed specifically for Talos.

The video shows the warhead being tested and mated with the missile. The missile was then stored until it was connected with the booster. After it was checked out and the wings and fins were installed, the missile was ready to be fired. The Talos had the capability to destroy air or surface targets.

The Amchitka Program

1970 24:11 Min Color This video discusses the MILROW nuclear test, a seismic calibration test to determine whether larger nuclear tests could be conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. The approximately one megaton MILROW device, buried 4000 feet underground, was detonated on October 2, 1969.

The video shows scenic views of the Amchitka Island and discusses its participation in World War II activities and in a previous nuclear test - LONG SHOT. Footage also shows preparations and activities before, during, and after the MILROW test, including environmental protection studies and activities conducted by Atomic Energy Commission, Department of the Interior, and State of Alaska personnel. Surface effects during and after the test detonation are shown, including the surface subsidence crater.

The three underground nuclear tests conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska, were as follows:

LONG SHOT, October 29, 1965, shaft, Vela Uniform Project, approximately 80 kilotons
MILROW October 2, 1969, shaft, weapons related, approximately 1 megaton (Mt)
CANNIKIN, November 6, 1971, shaft, weapons related, less than 5 Mt

The Milrow Test

1969 27:30 Min Color This video discusses the MILROW detonation, as presented by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The narrator sums up the reason for the test when he states, "The purpose of the MILROW test was to test an island, not a weapon." The device, detonated on October 2, 1969, on Amchitka Island, Alaska, was buried 4000 feet underground and had a yield of approximately one megaton. MILROW demonstrated that a larger nuclear test could be safely conducted on the island.

The Warm Coat

1968 14:00 Min Black&White Follow the adventures of "Harvey," the wily otter, as he and other sea otters are relocated from Amchitka Island, Alaska, to other Alaskan sites with no otter colonies. This video shows the planning and execution of "Project Sea Otter Transplant." No nuclear explosions are shown in this video.

Several state and federal entities combined efforts to help repopulate the otters at new sites in Alaska. The State of Alaska, along with the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the U.S. Department of the Interior, worked on this project. In summer 1968, an Alaska Department of Fish and Game biologist supervised Aleut fisherman who captured about 50 otters each week; took them to a shore installation; and safely fed and cleaned the otters until transported to their new homes. Seven sea-otter transplants were performed using AEC’s C-130 cargo aircraft. In all, 359 sea otters were transported to new homes off the Alaskan coast.

Tonopah Test Range

Tonopah Test Range, An Outdoor Laboratory Facility 1964 12:27 Min Color The Tonopah Test Range, operated for the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies by Sandia National Laboratories, was opened in 1960 near the town of Tonopah, NV. The purpose of the range is to test non-nuclear ordnance and engineering designs.

Tonopah, the video shows, is actually four test ranges on one. It has concrete target and operations buildings with tracking radar, cameras, and other instrumentation. The range provides a high-level bombing range over dry lakes, a low-level bombing range with concrete and land targets, a rocket launching range, and facilities for test firing artillery shells.

Featured in this early 1960s video are scenes of flight impact of a B-61 weapon casing from an A-6, balloon instrumentation launches, artillery firing, airdrop/parachute deployment of a weapon casing from a B-52 bomber, rocket launches, and numerous weapon impact tests.

Torpedo MK 45 (Nuclear) Systems Description

U.S. Navy Training Film 1962 13:00 Min Black&White and Color This animated video shows an antisubmarine torpedo with a nuclear warhead maneuvering to get position on an "enemy" submarine before detonation.

The commentator describes the range control systems, the depth control functions, and the integration of other components that make the entire system work. Also shown are warhead and safety features being checked before deployment. The video shows an animated demonstration of the torpedo systems and then shows actual footage of torpedo components in a training torpedo. The final test run of the torpedo shows that it is safe for the firing ship and deadly for the target.

U.S. Air Force Atomic Bomb Delivery Aircraft

Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Presents United States Air Force Atomic Bomb Delivery Aircraft Piloted 1950-1957 17:30 Min Black&White and Color - This video highlights the United States Air Force’s nuclear capable aircraft available in the early 1950s. Featured aircraft included the strategic bombers B-29, B-50, B-36, B-47 and B-52, while the tactical aircraft were the B-45, B-57, F-86, and F-84. The video depicts a Mark-6 , or "60-inch nuclear bomb" in a nuclear test. The Mark 7 tactical nuclear weapon, or "30-inch nuclear bomb," is shown being loaded and tested by the newest delivery method, the Low Altitude Bombing System (LABS). With LABS, a tactical aircraft flies toward an "initial point," then commences a "4G" climb, and releases the bomb at a designated point in the climb. By the time the bomb detonates, the aircraft is a safe distance away.

The video shows that the Air Force had a wide choice of aircraft, bombs, and delivery methods, and could use them to protect the welfare and security of the country.


The ultimate survival and survivalist Mega collection.

We feature the worlds largest and the ultimate survival and survivalist collection of over 21,000 survival books and military manuals.